Richter arranges, performs, and composes music for stage, opera, ballet and screen. He has collaborated with other musicians, as well as with performance, installation and media artists. He has recorded eight solo albums, and his music is widely used in cinema, such as the score of Ari Folman's animated war film Waltz with Bashir (2008).
Richter released his fourth solo album 24 Postcards in Full Colour, a collection of 24 classically composed miniatures for ringtones, in 2008. The pieces are a series of variations on the basic material, scored for strings, piano, and electronics.
Richter's 2010 album Infra takes as its central theme the 2005 terrorist bombings in London, and is an extension of his 25-minute score for a ballet of the same name choreographed by Wayne McGregor and staged at the Royal Opera House. Infra comprises music written for piano, electronics and string quintet, plus the full performance score and material that subsequently developed from the construction of the album.Pitchfork described the album as \"achingly gorgeous\" and The Independent newspaper characterised it as \"a journey in 13 episodes, emerging from a blur of static and finding its way in a repeated phrase that grows in loveliness.\"
Richter has created numerous film and television soundtracks over the years. He rose to prominence with his score to Ari Folman's Golden Globe-winning film Waltz with Bashir in 2007, in which he supplanted a standard orchestral soundtrack with synth-based sounds and winning him the European Film Award for Best Composer. He also scored the independent feature film Henry May Long, starring Randy Sharp and Brian Barnhart, in 2008, and wrote the music for Feo Aladag's film Die Fremde (with additional music by Stéphane Moucha).
An excerpt of the song \"Sarajevo\" from his 2002 album Memoryhouse was used in the international trailer for the Ridley Scott film Prometheus. The track \"November\", from the same album, was featured in the international trailer for Terrence Malick's 2012 film, To the Wonder, and in the trailer for Clint Eastwood's 2011 film, J. Edgar. Films featuring Richter's music released in 2011 include French drama Sarah's Key by Gilles Paquet-Brenner and David MacKenzie's romantic thriller Perfect Sense. In 2012 he composed the scores for Henry Alex Rubin's Disconnect and Cate Shortland's Australian-German war thriller Lore. Richter again collaborated with Folman on The Congress, which was released in 2013.
Richter composed the original soundtrack for the HBO series The Leftovers, created by Damon Lindelof and Tom Perrotta, which was premiered in June 2014. Some of these compositions are included in the albums Memoryhouse and The Blue Notebooks. He also composed the score for the WW1 feature film Testament of Youth in 2014.
In 2016, Richter composed the score to \"Nosedive\", an episode of Charlie Brooker's Black Mirror. Also that year, he scored Luke Scott's debut feature Morgan and the political thriller Miss Sloane, while his piece \"On the Nature of Daylight\" opened and closed Denis Villeneuve's film Arrival. \"On the Nature Of Daylight\" also closes episode 7 of Castle Rock, \"The Queen\". He composed all the music in BBC One's drama Taboo which was broadcast in January and February 2017.
In 2019, Richter scored the film Ad Astra starring Brad Pitt with additional music by Nils Frahm and Lorne Balfe. An excerpt of his rendition of Dona nobis pacem was used for the fifth season of the BBC series Peaky Blinders created by Steven Knight.
Richter wrote the score to Infra as part of a Royal Ballet-commissioned collaboration with choreographer Wayne McGregor and artist Julian Opie. The production was staged at the Royal Opera House in London in 2008. In 2011, Richter composed a chamber opera based on neuroscientist David Eagleman's book Sum: Forty Tales from the Afterlives. The opera was choreographed by Wayne McGregor and premiered at the Royal Opera House Linbury Studio Theatre in 2012. The piece received positive reviews, with London's Evening Standard saying \"[it] fits together rather beautifully\". Their collaboration continued in April 2014 with Wayne McGregor's 'Kairos'; a ballet set to Richter's recomposition of the Four Seasons and part of a collaborative program involving three different choreographers titled 'Notations' with Ballett Zürich. In 2015 Richter and McGregor collaborated again on a new full-length ballet, Woolf Works, inspired by three novels by Virginia Woolf.
Richter was called upon again by past collaborator Wayne McGregor to score and produce an adaptation of Margaret Atwood's MaddAddam trilogy commissioned by the National Ballet of Canada and The Royal Ballet in 2022, wherein his orchestral and electronically produced compositions, both alone and together, help to realize Atwood's dystopian vision.
In 2010, Richter's soundscape The Anthropocene formed part of Darren Almond's film installation at the White Cube gallery in London. The composer has also collaborated with digital art collective Random International on two projects, contributing scores to the installations Future Self (2012), staged at the MADE space in Berlin, and Rain Room (2012/13) at London's Barbican Centre and MOMA, in New York.
For example, if someone is severely depressed, we might expect that they are also less sociable and that they perform poorly at work or school. We could test whether this is the case for people who scored high on a questionnaire for depression.
For example, some people have phases of depression, but also have phases of mania at other times (where they might feel highly irritable or excited). Some of these symptoms seem to be opposites of depression. So, these symptoms should be scored as part of separate concepts, such as a manic phase in bipolar disorder, if we wanted a scoring system with high internal consistency.
Tomitaka, S., Kawasaki, Y., Ide, K., Akutagawa, M., Yamada, H., Ono, Y., & Furukawa, T. A. (2018). Distributional patterns of item responses and total scores on the PHQ-9 in the general population: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMC Psychiatry, 18(1), 108. -018-1696-9
The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment or SOFA score was developed to assess the acute morbidity of critical illness at a population level and has been widely validated as a tool for this purpose across a range of healthcare settings and environments.
This review explores the development of the SOFA score, its applications and the challenges associated with measurement. In addition, it proposes guidance designed to facilitate the consistent and valid assessment of the score in multicentre sepsis trials involving novel therapeutic agents or interventions.
The SOFA score is an increasingly important tool in defining both the clinical condition of the individual patient and the response to therapies in the context of clinical trials. Standardisation between different assessors in widespread centres is key to detecting response to treatment if the SOFA score is to be used as an outcome in sepsis clinical trials.
The SOFA score has become integrated into a range of aspects of critical care since its development in the early 1990s, and it is now widely employed in the daily monitoring of acute morbidity in critical care units. The SOFA score was designed to provide population level insights into the acute morbidity of ICU patients; however, its application has broadened substantially in recent years. Following the development of new definitions [1,2,3], it is now used as a key criterion in the diagnosis of the sepsis syndrome on an individual patient level . It is also increasingly used to determine the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in phase II trials, a development that follows acceptance by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and others of organ dysfunction scores as an endpoint in exploratory trials for sepsis .
This review describes the development of the score and the challenges associated with robust and reproducible calculation and proposes guidance for its assessment in clinical trials, where inconsistency in SOFA score measurement could introduce substantial variability in key outcomes.
SOFA was based on six different scores, one for each of the respiratory, cardiovascular, hepatic, coagulation, renal and neurological systems each scored from 0 to 4 with an increasing score reflecting worsening organ dysfunction [5, 6]. The development team showed retrospectively that the score detected differences in severity of illness  and proposed its use as an alternative to other assessments of multiple organ dysfunction that had been developed in the early 1990s .
Further prospective evaluations in differing settings have validated the SOFA score, its maximum value during ICU stay and also change in SOFA over time as valid tools for the assessment of morbidity in critical illness [9,10,11,12], and the score has become a common feature of observational study reporting.
In cases where the physiological parameters do not match any row, zero points are given. In cases where the physiological parameters match more than one row, the row representing the highest score is selected.
Delta SOFA score: The delta SOFA is calculated as the change in total SOFA score (or that of an individual sub-score) between a defined time point and the baseline value. The baseline value may be the admission SOFA or a defined study day.
The value for each sub-score that represents the most severe (worst) value for the respective 24-h period for each parameter was used in initial validation and subsequent clinical studies using the SOFA score.
SOFA score should be undertaken prior to the start of any intervention or admission and for each subsequent 24-h period. At each assessment, the worst (most severe) value for the 24-h period of each SOFA sub-score is selected. 1e1e36bf2d